Having the capacity to remember past events, and to anticipate future ones, animals' lives are not merely a series of now-moments;
...by showing that animals have ambient emotional states, we show that their lives play out like a moving tapestry, and they can go better or worse according to their circumstances.
As active participants in dynamic communities teeming with other life forms, animals benefit by being on the ball, and learning from their experiences.
Many live in rich social networks, where individuals benefit by forming friendships and by cooperating with others.
...you are beholding a unique individual with personality traits, an emotional profile, and a library of knowledge built on experience...what you are witnessing is not just biology, but a biography.
Source: Balcombe, J. (2010) "second nature - the inner live of animals" Palgrave Macmillan p.203-4
Photos by Lelantos